Fredric Cleve in memoriam
Ihmisluonto ja moraali: Ympäristöetiikan pyrkimyksiä kohti relationaalista moraaliagenttia
Human Nature and Morality: Toward a Relational View of Moral Agents by Environmental Ethics —Environmental ethics has endeavoured to justify as a universal claim that nature as individual nonhumans and as organisms and wholes has normative significance for human moral agents. An argument has been made for nature’s status as a moral object by extending the moral domain. Sticking to the philosophical framework of modern ethics, however, implies the presuppositions of exclusively humanist ethics. In this article, I consider the criticism against the modernist presuppositions of human moral agency. In modern ethics, a moral agent is seen as exceptional, capable of using her individual reason and free will independently from both her material and social determinants. This is much criticized by both constructionists and naturalists – from very different perspectives. Many environmental ethicists also argue for socially, culturally and materially embodied and embedded human moral agency – and sometimes (especially in the case of eco-feminists) they seem to combine elements from both constructionism and evolutionary naturalism. My argument is that from the viewpoint of their common target of criticism, they may serve to re-conceptualize a moral agency for ethics that attempts neither to remain modernist nor to become postmodernist. They may serve in search of a relational account of moral agency.
I brytningstider: Människosyn och moraluppfattning
In Times of Transition: Human Visions and Conceptions of Morality — The article illustrates how an analysis based on the transition between modernity and late modernity can yield new insights on environmentalism, ecotheology and environmental ethics. Given as examples are the visions of Pentti Linkola and Seppo Kjellberg regarding the value of humanity and nature and their mutual relationship.
Panenteistinen jumalakäsitys ekoteologisena löytönä
The Panentheist Conception of God as an Eco-theological Discovery — In panentheism, God is understood to be dynamically present both in and beyond His creation. It has been claimed that panentheism is better equipped than classical theism to respond to the theological, philosophical and ethical challenges of modern times. The focus of this article is on what the panentheist conception of God has to give to eco-theology. Ecological effectiveness is connected to a readiness to approach a comprehensive conception of reality. With this shift, the panentheist conception of God will enable us to return to an experience of nature as something sacred and worthy of respect.
Maa on niin kaunis: Luterilaisen uskon, ekologisen etiikan ja toiminnan filosofian leikkauskohtia
What a Wonderful World: Focusing on Lutheran Faith, Ecological Ethics and the Philosophy of Action — The Nicene Creed sets a frame for Christian eco-theology: “We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen.” The first article of faith, creation, brings together the question of being, classical ethical views (lex natura) as well as the modern ecological challenge. A philosophical perspective acknowledges that human beings, action and morality go together. However, the philosophical question about action as such and its constituents has not played a major role in the discussion of ethical issues. The aim of this article is to provide a Lutheran vision of creation by commenting on the theology of creation and the theology of the Word as well as revising the relation between faith and ethics with the help of Robert Audi’s view of the philosophy of action. The moral motivation theory of religious social ethics – and especially ecological ethics – may gain some correcting support from facing a religious ethos that does not seek a second-order moral justification but lives it instead.
Katsauksia ja keskustelua
Europeiska synpunkter på biovetenskapernas etik
Luterilaista ilmastoteologiaa: Katsaus evankelisluterilaisen kirkon ilmasto-ohjelmaan: Kiitollisuus, kunnioitus, kohtuus
Esko M. Laine
Malmin seurakunnan ympäristöohjelma
- Timo Helenius (toim.) Meille annettu maa: Pohjoisen kirkon ympäristökirja (Virpi Mäkinen)
- James Lovelock. Gaian kosto (Nani Härkönen)
- David Kronlid. Miljöetik i praktiken: Åtta fall ur svensk miljö- och utvecklingshistoria (Timo Helenius)
- Michael S. Northcott. A Moral Climate: The Ethics of Global Warming (Minna Näsman)
- Mary C. Grey. Sacred Longings: Ecofeminist Theology and Globalization (Pauliina Kainulainen)
- Laurel Kearns & Catherine Keller (eds.) Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth (Suvielise Nurmi)
- Broberg, Gunnar. Tsunamin i Lissabon: Jordbävningen den 1 november 1755, i epicentrum och i svensk periferi (Esko M. Laine)
- Günther, Horst. Das Erdbeben von Lissabon und die Erschütterung des aufgeklärten Europa (Esko M. Laine)