Teologinen Aikakauskirja 2/2014

Virpi Mäkinen
Keskiajan filosofisen teologian tutkimus Suomessa

Mia Hagman
Marguerite Porete, Jumalan tyttäreksi syntynyt: Tahdon annihilaatio tienä Jumala-yhtymykseen

Marguerite Porete, Born to be a Daughter of God: Annihilation of the Will as a Pathway to Union with God — Marguerite Porete was a theologian, mystic and author whose life ended in flames in Paris in 1310. Marguerite was sentenced to be burned at the stake because of her ideas on the deification of the souls, presented in her work The Mirror of Simple Souls. In this books, she drew a profound picture of the soul’s journey to union with God. The thesis of The Mirror is a total annihilation of natural will as well as of all powers originating from the soul itself. Marguerite developed a doctrine of annihilation that was original and deeply explorative and in its radicalness could be associated with the Heresy of the Free Spirit. In my article, I examine Marguerite’s theological thinking and the factors that led to her execution. The main issue of my study is to attempt to discuss the question: Why was it not enough for Marguerite, as it was for so many theologians before and after her, that the will of the soul is aligned with God’s will? Why did it need to be annihilated totally?
Ilse Paakkinen
“Miessydämiset naiset”: Sukupuolenvaihdos Christine de Pizanin tuotannossa

”Male-Hearted Women”: Gender Change in Christine de Pizan’s Works — Despite her influence in late medieval Paris, Christine de Pizan has remained a rather unknown figure in Finnish research. In this article, the author discusses Christine’s conception of gender change: Christine’s own transformation from a woman into a man and the allegorical examples of women who have adopted masculine practices, and Christine’s advice to women on how to change their gender if necessity demands it. Christine’s conception was partly based on the dominant Aristotelian-Scholastic conception of gender, which is also the main target of Christine’s criticism. Besides providing a historical perspective on the way gender was conceptualised, the topic of the article is a timely one.
Tuomas Vaura
”Tiesikö Kristus kaiken minkä Jumala tietää?” Kristuksen inhimillinen tietoisuus skolastikkojen välisissä keskusteluissa

”Did Christ Know Everything that God Knows?” The Debates of Christ’s Human Knowledge Among the Scholastics — The article concerns the debates on Christ’s human cognition among the 13th- and early 14th-century scholastics. The viewpoint is restricted to Thomas Aquinas’s theory and how other Dominican as well as Franciscan theologians commented on it. The article further describes certain ideas that differ from Aquinas’s view. The other theologians discussed are Durand of St. Pourçain, Peter of Palude, Bonaventure, John Duns Scotus and Peter Aureol.
Mikko Posti
Sattumaa vai johdatusta? Jumalan kaitselmus ja tahdonvapaus skolastisessa teologiassa

Coincidence or Guidance? Divine Providence and Freedom of the Will in Scholastic Theology — The doctrine of divine providence asserts that God directs all created beings towards an end according to a plan pre-existing in the divine mind. In philosophical theology, this raises the question of how human free will is to be reconciled with divine providence. If the choices made by human beings really are free, does this not mean that they can deviate from the divine plan, frustrating divine providence in the process? In this article, I introduce some of the main problems considered and positions taken by the late medieval theologians in reconciling divine providence and human free will.
Ritva Palmén
”Kunpa saisin kyvyn puhua kuin Bileamin aasi!” Rikhard Pyhä-Viktorilaisen argumentaatio ja retoriikka De trinitate -teoksessa

”I wish I could talk like Balaam’s ass!” The Argumentation and Rhetoric in Richard of St. Victor’s De trinitate — The aim of the article is to give a preliminary rhetorical analysis of the well-known theological treatise De trinitate by Richard of St. Victor (1173). The hypothesis is that rhetorical evaluation of the text can yield a more profound understanding of the specific arguments in use. The article shows that Richard composed his text for a variety of audiences. Some arguments are written for an educated audience, whereas others are clearly meant for ”simpler” people, such as Richard’s own pupils. Depending on the audience, the rhetorical strategies and argumentation change. To illustrate these changes in De trinitate, the article offers examples of Richard’s argumentation.

Rik van Nieuwenhove, An Introduction to Medieval Theology (Mikko Posti) | Russell L. Friedman, Intellectual Traditions at the Medieval University: The Use of Philosophical Psychology in Trinitarian Theology Among the Franciscans and Dominicans 1250–1350, osat I–II (Mikko Posti) | Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila & Inka Nokso-Koivisto, Kalifien kirjastossa: Arabialais-islamilaisen tieteen historia (Virpi Mäkinen) | Amy Hollywood & Patricia Z. Beckman (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Christian Mysticism (Päivi Salmesvuori) | Amanda Power, Roger Bacon and the Defence of Christendom (Antti Ruotsala) | Walter A. Euler & Ylva Gustafsson & Iris Wikström (eds.), Nicholas of Cusa on the Self and Self-Consciousness (Jari Kaukua) | Henrik Lagerlund & Paul Thom (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Robert Kilwardby (Tuomas Vaura) | Boyd Taylor Coolman, The Theology of Hugh of St. Victor: An Interpretation (Ritva Palmén) | Paul Rorem, Hugh of St. Victor (Ritva Palmén) | Markus Vinzent, The Art of Detachment (Pauli Annala) | Aelred Rievauxlainen Hengellisestä ystävyydestä (Kalle Hiltunen) | Jyrki Knuutila, Soturi, kuningas, pyhimys: Pyhän Olavin kultti osana kristillistymistä Suomessa 1200-luvun alkupuolelta 1500-luvun puoliväliin (Eva Thölix) | Marika Räsänen & Reima Välimäki & Marjo Kaartinen (toim.), Turun tuomiokirkon suojissa: Pohjoinen hiippakuntakeskus keskiajan ja uuden ajan alun Euroopassa (Leena Enqvist)