On Justification — The article discusses three issues related to what is known as forensic justification. Firstly, the article proposes that the Latin concept of imputation as it appears in the texts of the Reformation contains various non-forensic dimensions. This conclusion is based on recent work by Sibylle Rolf. Secondly, it is further proposed that the concept of forgiveness involves dimensions of gift-giving and healing that cannot be reduced to a merely forensic theological concept. Thirdly, the article discusses the current use of the notion of justification in social sciences (e.g. by Rainer Forst), arguing that certain theological aspects of forensic justification display features that are parallel to, though not fully synonymous with, the philosophical use of the notion.
Eugen Drewermannin syvyyspsykologinen raamatuntulkinta
Eugen Drewermann’s Depth Psychology Exegesis — Eugen Drewermann integrates depth psychology into exegesis, his major influence being the dream analysis of Carl Gustav Jung. His method is to search and interpret images underlying the texts of the Bible. His claims are: 1) that those images are unconscious, archetypical images of the writers of the Bible, 2) that those images can help people abandon their anxiety and believe in God, and 3) that other images in the Bible can help similar-minded people to believe. Drewermann explores parallels in other religions and literature. He considers that every story in the Bible relates the inner life of a human being and wants to interpret them as an image of individuation. The existential attitude is important in interpretation.
Lars Stenbäckin pietistipedagogiikka ja J. V. Snellmanin siitä esittämä kritiikki
Lars Stenbäck, the First Finnish Professor of Pedagogics and Philosopher J. V. Snellman as His Critic — During the Crimean War, the political scene changed in Finland. The new politics of Tsar Alexander II encouraged economic and educational reforms. Poet and Revivalist pastor Lars Stenbäck was appointed the first Professor of Pedagogics at the Faculty of Theology at the University in Helsinki in 1855. Neither the Lutheran Church nor the Faculty realised the nature of the change in official politics. It was their aim, and Stenbäck’s, to maintain the existing hegemony of religious education not only in the education of the common people but also in education in general. Stenbäck pursued a Revivalist pedagogical agenda in accordance with his own religious convictions. J. V. Snellman, previously a persona non grata, was one of the reformers now elevated to a position of influence due to the new political climate. He was principally responsible for pointing out the flaws in Stenbäck’s pedagogical system. As a result, Stenbäck resigned after only one academic term in office, and the Chair of Pedagogics was removed from the Faculty of Theology. Under Snellman and J. Z. Cleve, another philosopher, pedagogics became secularised, and this was the origin of its development as a university discipline and the basis for educational thinking in Finland.
Heimoaatetta, ystävyyttä ja epäluuloja: 75 vuotta suomalais-ugrilaisia pappeinkokouksia
Tribalism, Friendship and Mistrust: 75 years of Finno-Ugric Pastoral Conferences — The article presents a cross-section of Finno-Ugric pastoral conferences between 1948 and 2012. The first such conference was held in Budapest in 1937, ten years after the initiation of, and as a result of, the exchange of scholarship students between Finland and Hungary. Initially, Finno-Ugric tribalism was a significant factor underlying the conferences. Representatives from the Churches of Finland and Hungary have always participated in the conferences. Attendance by the Estonians, the Romanian Hungarians and the Ingrians has always depended on the political circumstances of the day, which have also influenced relationships between the participating Churches and their various theological leanings. Over the years, relationships have been characterised not only by friendship and fellowship in faith but also by mistrust and tensions. The conferences were a major point of contact between East and West during the Cold War.
Katsauksia ja keskustelua
Kirkkojen valvonta Itä-Euroopan sosialistimaiden ongelmana
- John Kampen. Wisdom Literature: Eerdmans Commentaries on the Dead Sea Scrolls (Elisa Uusimäki)
- Niko Huttunen. Uusi testamentti ja antiikin filosofia: Tutkimusnäkökulmia (Joona Salminen)
- Raimo Hakola & Outi Lehtipuu Alussa oli Sana: Kirkkokäsikirjan evankeliumitekstien kommentaari. 1. vuosikerta (Sini Hulmi)
- Alain Badiou. Apostoli Paavali: Universalismin perustaja (Marika Pulkkinen)
- Jason Lepojärvi. Ruumis Jumalan kuvana: Johdatus Johannes Paavali II:n ruumiin teologiaan (Soili Haverinen)
- Godehard Brüntrup. Christian Herwartz & Hermann Kügler (Hrsg.). Unheilige Macht: Der Jesuitenorden und die Missbrauchskriese (Saku Toiviainen)
- J. T. Paasch. Divine Production in Late Medieval Trinitarian Theology: Henry of Ghent, Duns Scotus and William Ockham (Mikko Posti)
- Pilvi Torsti. Suomalaiset ja historia (Jaakko Mikkola)
- Leena Isotalo. Yhteinen hyvä ja yksilön oikeus: Kansakoulun uskonnonopetus Kansallisen Kokoomuspuolueen politiikassa 1918–1923 (Eija Jämbäck)
- G. W. F. Hegel. Logiikan tiede I: Objektiivinen logiikka (Tarja-Liisa Luukkanen)
- Rudolf von Sinner. The Churches and Democracy in Brazil: Towards a Public Theology Focused on Citizenship (Jukka Raunu)
- Heinrich Holze. Die Kirchen des Nordens in der Neuzeit (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert): Kirchengeschichte in Einzeldarstellungen III/11 (Simo Heininen)
- Stephan Borgehammar (Red.). Dop: Svenskt Gudstjänstliv (Johan Terho)
- Eero Huovinen. Enkeli taivaan: Rakas jouluvirsi (Teija Pitkänen)
- Esko Miettinen. Taivaallisia vieraita: Kristillinen enkeliperinne Suomessa (Samuli Suolanen)
- Hanna Ranssi-Matikainen, Yhdessä sittenkin: Kokemukset erokriisistä, vertaistuesta ja muutoksesta parisuhteessa (Jouko Kiiski)
- René Gothóni. Words Matter: Hermeneutics in the Study of Religions (Risto Pulkkinen)
- Mikko Heimola. Religious Rituals and Social Norms in Making of Adaptative Systems: Empirical and Theoretical Synthesis on Revivals in 19th Century Finland (Kirsti Suolinna)