Teologinen Aikakauskirja 4/2020 (125. vuosikerta)

Ritva Palmén
Eläinten ja ihmisten välisestä suhteesta

Miira Tuominen
Oikeudenmukaisuus elollisia olentoja kohtaan: Porfyrioksen pidättäytymisen etiikka

Justice for Living Beings: Porphyry’s Ethics of Abstinence — In this article, I argue that Porphyry’s conception of justice in On abstinence is remarkable for several reasons. While I agree with Fay Edwards that Porphyry does not assume the moral status of animals to depend on their rationality, I argue that Porphyry’s claim is not based on any form of the assumption that animals deserve moral consideration only if they share some relevant property with human beings. Contrary to Edwards, I argue that this is not because justice is irrelevant to animals in On abstinence 3. Rather, extending abstinence from causing harm to humans to apply also to non-human animals and plants is a constitutive element in the higher forms of justice that Porphyry requires of philosophers.
Noora Koivulahti
Ihmisten ja muiden eläinten hierarkia eettisten vaatimusten perustana eläinteologiassa

The Hierarchy of Humans and Other Animals and the Ethical Demands of Animal Theology — In this article, I examine arguments on hierarchy and anthropocentrism within animal theology. Hierarchy is problematized in animal theology, since it is the basis for anthropocentrism and among the bases for the instrumental treatment of animals. Hierarchy between humans and other animals can be interpreted either functionally or relationally or as the result of differences in moral value. I argue that, in both cases, hierarchy is, nevertheless, a crucial part of the construction of non-anthropocentric, ethical human relationships with animals. That is, even though hierarchy can function as grounds for anthropocentrism, anthropocentrism is not a necessary result of hierarchy construction.
Toni Koivulahti
Aika ihmisen jälkeen: Thomas Altizerin teologia ja posthumanismi

The Time After Humanity: The Theology of Thomas Altizer and Posthumanism — This article examines Thomas J. J. Altizer’s “Death of God” theology and its compatibility with the field of posthuman theory, particularly in the work of Rosi Braidotti. Traditional versions of Christianity are usually incompatible with posthumanism due to the materialist underpinnings of the latter. I show how special features of Altizer’s theology can in fact be combined with non-anthropocentric posthumanism —namely, its compatibility with the ideas of materialism and perspectivism. By combining Altizer’s ideas on the self-emptying of God with non-anthropocentric theory, I further show how the combination of theology and posthumanism can have notable consequences for theological ethics.
Emma Kurenlahti
Terhi Hannola
Mikko Kurenlahti
Pahuuden läpäisemä ihmis–eläin-suhde ja pelastuksen mahdollisuus: Tuotantoeläinten muistokirjoitukset yhteisöllisinä ja kasvatuksellisina pelastuskertomuksina

Evil in Human-Animal Relations and the Possibility of Liberation: Farm Animal Obituaries as Communal and Educational Salvation Narratives — This multidisciplinary article examines the formation of alternative human–animal relations in the context of farm animal sanctuaries. The research material consists of farm animal obituaries published online by two sanctuaries, one in Finland and the other in the US. The material is approached from the perspective of the ritualization of non-human death through discourse analysis. The results show how a common salvation narrative identified from the data contributes to attempts to achieve moral ideals and resist various constructions of evil, as well as to implement specific educational aims. Also, this narrative plays a significant role not only in the construction of the social identity of the sanctuaries but also in the negotiation of their relationships with the surrounding society.
Sanna Saari
Aseeton Simson ja karjuva leijona muinaisen Lähi-idän kuvalähteiden valossa

Unarmed Samson and a Roaring Lion in Light of Ancient Near Eastern Images — This article observes the portrayal of a violent encounter between a man and a lion in Judges 14:5–6 by mapping the literary image in the Biblical passage and then comparing it with congruent visual sources from the ancient Near East. The heroic encounter with a lion is a widely spread and well-attested motif in the ancient Near East. There is a variety of images where a monarch, deity, or a hero figure engage in one-on-one combat with a raging lion. However, most visual depictions of this motif include weapons, whereas Samson in Judges 14:5–6 is depicted as an unarmed lion slayer. This article discusses how the barehanded killing of the lion influenced the visual portrayal of Samson’s character.

  • Patricia Cox Miller. In the Eye of the Animal: Zoological Imagination in Ancient Christianity (Vilja Alanko)
  • Mika Rissanen. Rooma, suden kaupunki (Marja-Leena Hänninen)
  • Kaski, Liisa. Myyttiset eläimet: Tarua ja totta eläinten mahdista (Siria Kohonen)
  • Christopher Steck, SJ. All God’s Animals: A Catholic Theological Framework for Animal Ethics (Gabriel Salmela OP)
  • David L. Clough. On Animals Volume 2: Theological Ethics (Noora Koivulahti)