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Teologinen Aikakauskirja 5–6/2016

Juha Pakkala
Suhtautuminen muukalaisiin Vanhassa testamentissa

Attitudes towards Foreigners in the Old Testament — Relationships between the Israelites and other nations is a key theme that runs through the Old Testament. Attitudes towards foreigners in the Bible have become particularly topical with the current refugee crisis in Europe. The Bible has been cited to support the argument that Christians should be charitable towards asylum seekers. However, the Bible offers no consistent code of conduct; there are several contradictions in this respect. In parts of the Old Testament, aliens living among the Israelites are viewed with exceptional benevolence, but other texts emphasise how distinct and apart the Israelites are from other peoples, and outright hostility against foreigners can also be found. In addition to taking this plurality of attitudes into account, citing the Bible as an authority in a responsible way requires an understanding of the backgrounds of its writings. Suitable Bible quotes can be found for all kinds of purposes, and removed from their context they can be used to justify practically any course of action.
Timo Nisula
Kuka kertoisi hänen syntymänsä tavan? Augustinuksen joulusaarnat – apofaattista teologiaa vai sakramentaalista jumalapuhetta?

“Who Shall Declare His Generation?”: Augustine’s Christmas Sermons – Apophatic Mysticism or Sacramental Words on the Divine? — Augustine’s sermons for Christmas Day (Sermons 184–196, 369, 370) are a distinct collection of brief and poetic discourses on the mystery of the Incarnation. Although the Christmas sermons present as a rhetorical element a qualified attitude to the ability of human language to reach divine truths, the main concern of Augustine is to declare Christological doctrines with words that are worthy of the great miracle of the Incarnation. The article shows how the Christmas sermons lead their audience to grasp the human birth of Logos, the way in which Augustine talks of the flesh (caro) of Christ and how Augustine includes his audience in the sacramental mystery of the birth of Christ.
Kimmo Heinilä
Hessenin konfirmaatio (1539) ja sen liturgianhistoriallinen alkuperä

The Confirmation of Hessen (1539) and its Liturgical-Historical Origins — Scholars of confirmation are fairly unanimous that the Lutheran liturgical practice of confirmation is based on two Ordinances of Confirmation published in Hessen in 1539 and also that their principal architect was Martin Bucer (1491–1551), leader of the southern German Reformation movement and of reformation in the city of Strassburg. According to Bucer, his conception of confirmation was founded on the traditions of the early Church. Scholars, however, note that Bucer’s principal influences for his conception of confirmation came from several sources predating and/or contemporaneous with the Reformation (the Bohemian Brethren, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Luther, critics of infant baptism). The present article contends that Bucer and the reformers in Hessen actually only had one liturgical model and specimen text for their confirmation formats. The structure and content of the Confirmation of Hessen indicate with high probability that Bucer derived it from the Zwinglian-leaning confessional book Rechenschaft des Glaubens (Account of Faith), published in German by the Bohemian Brethren in Zurich in 1532.
Antti Räihä
Hengellisyys, poliittisuus ja yhteisöllisyys: Konsistorien toiminta 1700-luvun Venäjän rajaseudulla

Religiousness, Politicality and Communality: The Consistories’ Operation in the 18th-century Russian Border Area — This article discusses the operation of diocesan boards (in this case, the Consistories of Fredriks­hamn and Vyborg) in the Lutheran border area of the otherwise Orthodox Russian Empire in the late 18th century. The focus is on communal and political intentions that were included, sometimes hidden, in the religious activities of the Consistories. The questions involved in the research will be approached through the analysis of the suggestions of the Consistories concerning the texts and the dates of the intercession days and the role of the Consistories in supervising religious services held by clerics. These aspects are closely interconnected, because the message of the Consistories was filtered through the clergy to the subjects.
Carolin Ahlvik-Harju
Det är gott att du finns: Människovärde, Guds avbild och människor med grava kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar

It’s Good That You’re Here: Human Value, the Image of God and Persons with Serious Cognitive Impairment — The purpose of this article is to reclaim significance in the concept of human dignity by approaching it as a value commitment. The starting point for the theological constructive argument put forward is found in experience-based narratives of profound intellectual disabilities, described in light of the Christian narrative of creation. On a conceptual level, it is suggested that dominant norms for recognition can be broadened by implementing a ‘disability hermeneutic’ of human being and God. On a practical level, the potential implications of implementing a ‘disability hermeneutic’ of love is discussed as a route towards reclaiming significance in the concept of human dignity.
Joonas Riikonen
Sovitus ja häpeä: Kristillisen sovitusopin tarkastelua häpeän ja syyllisyyden välisen jännitteen näkökulmasta

Atonement and Shame: Examining the Christian Doctrine of Atonement from the Perspective of the Tension between Shame and Guilt — The doctrine of atonement is a key traditional part of Christian theology. The most common interpretations of the doctrine of atonement are rooted in the concepts of guilt and forgiveness. Pastoral psychology research in the past decades has identified shame in particular as one of the major issues in pastoral care and theology. This prompts a challenge to consider the tension between interpretations of the doctrine of atonement and shame. The present article discusses various atonement models in relation to the theological challenges involving shame arising from pastoral psychology research. Closer examination reveals that the most common interpretations of the doctrine of atonement pay little attention to issues of shame. A synthesis of shame and atonement would require reflection on a theology of shame, which in turn would require a reinterpretation of theological points emphasising guilt. In conclusion, the article discusses elements of a constructive theology of shame that would anchor the doctrine of atonement firmly to the theology of creation and incarnation and to an understanding of shame as a disruption in a person’s relationship to God.
Katsauksia ja keskustelua: 
John Vikström
Jämställd och underordnad: Kvinnan och prästämbetet enligt Bo Giertz

Ville Vuolanto
Lapsi ja lapsuus varhaiskristillisessä kulttuurissa

Hanne Appelqvist
Wittgensteinista, Wittgenstein-tutkimuksesta ja wittgensteinilaisuudesta

Lauri Kemppainen
Rauhan ontologia haastaa sekularismin

Timo Eskola
Missä menee kriittisen keskustelun ja epäluulon herättämisen raja? Vastine Risto Saarisen artikkeliin ”Vihapuhe ja mustamaalaus teologisena kysymyksenä” 

Esko M. Laine
Saara Cantellin Tulen morsian: Ristiriitainen ja värittynyt, mutta mielenkiintoinen kurkistus noitadoktriinin tuolle puolelle


  • Raimo Hakola, Niko Huttunen & Outi Lehtipuu. Maan Suola: Kirkkokäsikirjan evankeliumi-tekstien kommentaari, 3. vuosikerta (Risto Auvinen)
  • Kirsi Valkama, Hanne von Weissenberg & Nina Nikki (toim.). Raamattu ja magia (Marika Rauhala)
  • Victor H. Matthews. The Cultural World of the Bible: An Illustrated Guide to Manners and Customs (Elisa Uusimäki)
  • Plutarkhos. Eläinten älykkyydestä ja muita kirjoituksia (Ulla Tervahauta)
  • Ismo Dunderberg. Jeesus, seksi ja harhaoppiset sekä muita kirjoituksia varhaisesta kristinuskosta (Kari Syreeni)
  • Matýas Havrda, Vit Hušek & Jana Plátová (eds.). The Seventh Book of the Stromateis: Proceedings of the Colloquim on Clement of Alexandria (Olomouc, October 21–23, 2010) (Joona Salminen)
  • Adam Ployd. Augustine, the Trinity, and the Church: A Reading of the Anti-Donatist Sermons (Timo Nisula)
  • Brenda Llewellyn Ihssen. John Moschos’ Spiritual Meadow: Authority and Autonomy at the End of the Antique World (Ulla Tervahauta)
  • Jaakko Olavi Antila, Esko M. Laine & Juha Meriläinen (toim.) Kristinuskon historian tutkimusalat ja metodit (Jyrki Knuutila)
  • Hans Renders & Binne De Haan (ed.). Theoretical Discussions of Biography: Approaches from History, Microhistory, and Life Writing (Päivi Salmesvuori)
  • Mirkka Lappalainen. Pohjolan leijona: Kustaa II Aadolf ja Suomi 1611–1632 (Simo Heininen)
  • Teemu Kakkuri. Suomalainen herätys: Herätyskristillisyyden historia nälkävuosista Nokia-missioon (Jouko Talonen)
  • Klaus Helkama. Suomalaisten arvot: Mikä meille on oikeasti tärkeää? (Taina Kalliokoski)
  • Darius Staliūnas. Enemies for a Day: Antisemitism and Anti-Jewish Violence in Lithuaniua Under the Tsars (Teuvo Laitila)
  • Cengiz Sisman. The Burden of Silence: Sabbatai Sevi and the Evolution of the Ottoman-Turkish Dönmes (Riikka Tuori)
  • Johanna Aaltonen & Elina Vuola (toim.). Uskonnon ja sukupuolen risteyksiä (Anni Tsokkinen)
  • Jarmo Kokkonen. Sukupuoli ja yhteisöllisyys rippikoulun rituaaleissa (Teemu Ratinen)
  • Francesca Aran Murphy & Troy A. Stefano (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Christology (Olli-Pekka Vainio)
  • Agustín Fuentes & Aku Visala (toim.). Conversations on Human Nature (Lari Launonen)
  • Michael S. Northcott & Peter M. Scott (toim.). Systematic Theology and Climate Change: Ecumenical Perspectives (Piia Rytilä)
  • Thomas McAvoy. Jessie’s Miracle (Mika Riikonen)
  • Riikka Nissi & Aila Mielikäinen (toim.). Sanaa tutkimassa: Näkökulmia uskonnolliseen kieleen ja sen käyttöön (Susanna Asikainen)
  • Anneli Vartiainen. Messu, yhteisö ja muistaminen: Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon messu yhteisöllisen muistamisen tilana (Seppo Häkkinen)